Le rachat de crédit islamique ou halal n’existe pas

intérêts

عَنْ جَابِرٍ قَالَ لَعَنَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ آكِلَ الرِّبَا وَمُؤْكِلَهُ وَكَاتِبَهُ وَشَاهِدَيْهِ وَقَالَ هُمْ سَوَاءٌ – مسلم و أحمد

Le rachat d’un crédit bancaire à intérêt ne peut être ni islamique ni halal.

L’Islam considère que le Riba – l’usure ou l’intérêt – est un péché très grave qui expose celui qui y a recours à la colère divine en ce monde et dans l’au-delà. De plus, le Prophète Mohammed, paix et bénédiction sur lui, a affirmé dans un Hadith (en arabe ci dessus) que sont égaux dans le péché : celui qui se nourrit du Riba (le banquier ou l’usurier), celui qui le paie (l’emprunteur), celui qui rédige le contrat ainsi que les deux témoins (les employés de banque sont susceptibles d’appartenir à l’une de ces deux dernières catégories).

Malgré cette interdiction, de nombreux musulmans cèdent à la tentation de s’adresser aux banques pour y chercher ce qu’ils croient être une solution à leurs divers besoins financiers : crédit auto, crédit logement, compte d’épargne, découvert, etc. Toutefois, avec le développement de la finance islamique et la prise de conscience croissante de la gravité du Riba, certains emprunteurs sont pris de remords et cherchent à se réconcilier avec Dieu.

A ce titre, de plus en plus de musulmans se posent la question de savoir si le rachat de leur crédit par une banque islamique peut constituer une solution. Le Hadith cité précédemment exclut clairement cette possibilité. En effet, racheter un crédit suppose de le rembourser par anticipation en renégociant avec la banque le montant des intérêts à payer. Une banque islamique ne peut pas racheter un crédit sauf à vouloir consciemment et volontairement commettre le péché de Riba en payant des intérêts à la première banque. Si une institution financière se prétend islamique tout en proposant de racheter des crédits alors elle ajoute au péché de Riba un péché d’hypocrisie pour justifier une opération lucrative.

Allah est clément et miséricordieux. Celui ou celle qui regrette d’avoir pris un crédit – par ignorance ou par insouciance de la faute commise – et qui veut soulager sa conscience a une solution très simple : la repentance sincère (tawba nasouh). Les conditions de cette repentance sont au nombre de trois : le regret profond (au point d’en pleurer), la sincérité avec Dieu, et la ferme décision de ne plus jamais recommencer. Si l’emprunteur a la possibilité de rembourser son crédit plus rapidement pour réduire le montant total des intérêts qu’il aura payé c’est une bonne chose, sinon qu’il s’en remette à la générosité d’Allah.

Et Dieu sait mieux.

RIBH

Interest is the cause of most of the world’s problems

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We believe

We believe that interest is the root cause of most of the world’s problems. If we did not have compound interest, we would not need compound growth. And if we did not need compound growth, we would not have most of the debt-induced poverty, resource-hungry wars, and runaway climate change we now see. All interest – whether simple interest or compound interest, whether at very low rates or very high rates – grows so fast that we simply cannot keep up.

Need an example? Brazil is home to the beautiful Amazon rainforest. This lush wonder supplies us with a quarter of the world’s oxygen. That’s one in every four breaths. Unfortunately, this forest will vanish in our lifetimes. Why? So Brazil can pay off $200 billion of debt. How? With lumber.

Or take an example closer to home. Are you or someone you know crushed under growing personal debt? 43% of all American families now spend more than they earn each year. And this problem gets worse each year for millions of families around the world.

We believe there is a connection between interest and many of the world’s problems. And we believe that Islamic finance can help solve some of these problems.

But for this to happen we need two things: the letter of the law and the spirit of the law. For the letter of the law to work, Islamic finance needs to follow some basic minimum standards. Standards that won’t be taken seriously unless central banks start pulling some licenses.

The best standard in the industry – de facto in over 90% of the world’s Islamic finance jurisdictions – is AAOIFI (pronounced “a-yo-fee”), which stands for the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions. AAOIFI brings together scholars from all over the world who agree on Shariah standards. If it isn’t AAOIFI-compliant, it probably isn’t Shariah-compliant. We believe that following AAOIFI Shariah Standards – and questioning whether your bank, scholar, or trainer is following them – is a good starting point for following the letter of the law.

But we can’t stop there. Islamic finance needs to follow the spirit of the law as well.

We need to promote equity-based structures like Musharakah and Mudarabah and reduce our dependence on expedient structures like Murabaha. We need to eliminate Tawarruq. And at a broader level, we need to address the larger problem of fractional debt-reserve banking. Why do banks get to lend money they don’t have? And make money on money that doesn’t exist? Does this make sense?

While the reality is that banks aren’t going away anytime soon, a first step to challenging fractional debt-reserve banking is establishing a globally recognized gold-based currency. This immediately forces the market to tie transactions to assets rather than base them on mere numbers inside computers.

So where do we start with promoting the law in letter and spirit?

We believe it starts with you and me.

If you’re a banker, you can start doing two things at your bank: 1) check that your bank’s products comply with AAOIFI. The latest standards are available at http://www.aaoifi.com; and 2) start switching to Musharakah and Mudarabah for a variety of activities ranging from liquidity management to trade finance. And if your bank doesn’t offer Islamic finance, start asking why.

If you’re a regulator and Islamic finance is already practiced in your jurisdiction, pressure banks to follow AAOIFI or risk having their licenses suspended. At a broader level, support the Islamic microfinance industry. If Islamic finance hasn’t yet reached your jurisdiction, promote awareness with training and educational initiatives.

If you’re an entrepreneur, you probably have a skill the Islamic finance industry could use. Dream big: create a company, a community-based institution, a local currency, an ecologically-minded village, or an innovative product. In most countries, people still lack interest-free alternatives to home, education, and healthcare financing. Why is it easier to issue a billion dollar Sukuk than it is to raise a single penny for a Shariah-compliant education financing? How can we better operationalize Zakah? How do we build Waqf-based community-owned trust models? The recommended reading list for entrepreneurs later in this book gets you started with your idea.

If you’re a student, learn Islamic finance. Think beyond the standard career path and seriously consider starting something on your own. Do what you love and success will follow.

And if you’re an educator trying – like us – to change Islamic finance for the better be patient. Lasting change takes years. often decades. Resist the temptation to « throw the baby out with the bathwater » and reject all Islamic finance. The industry is still a work in progress with a long way to go. Be part of this progress rather than embarking on a dazzling new theory of economics that leaves the average customer scratching his head wondering how to finance a small house for his family. Just promote Diminishing Musharakah instead, for instance. The deeper, structural environment that Islamic finance inherits – fractional debt-reserve baking, fiat currency – are not solved by replacing products. They are solved by replacing systems: gold-based currencies issued by Islamic central banks.

We believe this century – indeed, the coming years – will be like nothing before. Global heating will mean less food and water. Peak oil will mean less energy. And repeated financial crises will mean less certainty. We can throw our hands up and walk away in resignation. Or we can identify the root problems and do something about it. God only makes us responsible for our actions. He takes care of outcomes.

We believe that it’s time to openly question the interest-based paradigm and promote interest-free finance as the proven alternative. The time has come. But the first step to questioning a paradigm and offering an alternative is to educate oneself.

Only then will you believe. Because if you believe, then so will everyone else.

This manifesto is taken from the first page of Ethica’s Handbook of Islamic Finance (2013 Edition). Download your copy here.

Source : Ethica Institute of Islamic Finance www.ethicainstitute.com

On the same subject : De Gaulle, the dollar and gold.